Bacterial secretion systems and regulation of inflammasome activation
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Original versionJournal of Leukocyte Biology. 2017, 101 (1), 165-181. 10.1189/jlb.4MR0716-330R
Innate immunity is critical for host defenses against pathogens, but many bacteria display complex ways of interacting with innate immune signaling, as they may both activate and evade certain pathways. Gram‐negative bacteria can exhibit specialized nanomachine secretion systems for delivery of effector proteins into mammalian cells. Bacterial types III, IV, and VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS, and T6SS) are known for their impact on caspase‐1‐activating inflammasomes, necessary for producing bioactive inflammatory cytokines IL‐1β and IL‐18, key participants of anti‐bacterial responses. Here, we discuss how these secretion systems can mediate triggering and inhibition of inflammasome signaling. We propose that a fine balance between secretion system‐mediated activation and inhibition can determine net activation of inflammasome activity and control inflammation, clearance, or spread of the infection.