Childhood epilepsy and ADHD comorbidity in an Indian tertiary medical center outpatient population
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its characteristics and risk factors in children with epilepsy at a tertiary medical center in New Delhi. Children with active epilepsy, aged 6 to 12 years, were assessed for ADHD using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Epilepsy and psychiatric characteristics, sociodemographic indicators, and use of antiepileptic drugs were analyzed for differences between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Among the 73 children with epilepsy, 23% (n = 17) had comorbid ADHD, of whom 59% (n = 10) had predominantly inattentive type, 35% (n = 6) combined type, and 6% (n = 1) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type. Lower IQ scores, epileptiform EEG activity, not attending school, and male sex were significantly associated with comorbid ADHD in children with epilepsy. Groups were similar in terms of age, socioeconomic indicators, family history of psychiatric disorders, seizure frequency in the last six months, seizure etiology, and seizure type. Epilepsy is a common pediatric neurological condition with frequent psychiatric comorbidities, including ADHD. Specialists should collaborate to optimize treatment for children with epilepsy and ADHD, especially for families in developing countries where the burden of disease can be great.