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dc.contributor.authorBentham, James
dc.contributor.authorDi Cesare, Mariachiara
dc.contributor.authorBilano, Ver
dc.contributor.authorBixby, Honor
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Bin
dc.contributor.authorStevens, Gretchen A.
dc.contributor.authorRiley, Leanne M.
dc.contributor.authorTaddei, Cristina
dc.contributor.authorHajifathalian, Kaveh
dc.contributor.authorLu, Yuan
dc.contributor.authorSavin, Stefan
dc.contributor.authorCowan, Melanie J.
dc.contributor.authorPaciorek, Christopher J.
dc.contributor.authorChirita-Emandi, Adela
dc.contributor.authorHayes, Alison J
dc.contributor.authorKatz, Joanne
dc.contributor.authorKelishadi, Roya
dc.contributor.authorKengne, André Pascal
dc.contributor.authorKhang, Young-Ho
dc.contributor.authorLaxmaiah, Avula
dc.contributor.authorLi, Yanping
dc.contributor.authorMa, Jun
dc.contributor.authorMiranda, J. Jaime
dc.contributor.authorMostafa, Aya
dc.contributor.authorNeovius, Martin
dc.contributor.authorPadez, Cristina
dc.contributor.authorRampal, Lekhraj
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Aubrianna
dc.contributor.authorBennett, James E.
dc.contributor.authorDanaei, Goodarz
dc.contributor.authorBhutta, Zulfiqar A.
dc.contributor.authorEzzati, Majid
dc.contributor.authorAbarca-Gómez, Leandra
dc.contributor.authorAbdeen, Ziad A.
dc.contributor.authorHamid, Zargar Abdul
dc.contributor.authorAbu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.
dc.contributor.authorAcosta-Cazares, Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorAcuin, Cecilia
dc.contributor.authorAdams, Robert J.
dc.contributor.authorAekplakorn, Wichai
dc.contributor.authorAfsana, Kaosar
dc.contributor.authorAguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
dc.contributor.authorAgyemang, Charles
dc.contributor.authorAhmadvand, Alireza
dc.contributor.authorAhrens, Wolfgang
dc.contributor.authorAjlouni, Kamel
dc.contributor.authorAkhtaeva, Nazgul
dc.contributor.authorAl-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.
dc.contributor.authorAl-Othman, Amani Rashed
dc.contributor.authorAl-Raddadi, Rajaa
dc.contributor.authorAlBuhairan, Fadia S.
dc.contributor.authorAlDhukair, Shahla
dc.contributor.authorAli, Mohamed M
dc.contributor.authorAli, Osman
dc.contributor.authorAlkerwi, Ala'a
dc.contributor.authorAlvarez-Pedrerol, Mar
dc.contributor.authorAly, Eman
dc.contributor.authorAmarapurkar, Deepak N.
dc.contributor.authorAmouyel, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorAmuzu, Antoinette
dc.contributor.authorAndersen, Lars Bo
dc.contributor.authorAnderssen, Sigmund Alfred
dc.contributor.authorAndrade, Dolores S
dc.contributor.authorÄngquist, Lars
dc.contributor.authorAnjana, Ranjit Mohan
dc.contributor.authorAounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
dc.contributor.authorAraújo, Joana
dc.contributor.authorAriansen, Inger Kristine
dc.contributor.authorAris, Tahir
dc.contributor.authorArlappa, Nimmathota
dc.contributor.authorArveiler, Dominique
dc.contributor.authorAryal, Krishna
dc.contributor.authorAspelund, Thor
dc.contributor.authorAssah, Felix K.
dc.contributor.authorAssunção, Maria Cecília
dc.contributor.authorAung, May Soe
dc.contributor.authorAvdicová, Mária
dc.contributor.authorAzevedo, Ana
dc.contributor.authorAzizi, Fereidoun
dc.contributor.authorBabu, Bontha V
dc.contributor.authorBahijri, Suhad
dc.contributor.authorBaker, Jennifer L.
dc.contributor.authorBalakrishna, Nagalla
dc.contributor.authorBamoshmoosh, Mohamed
dc.contributor.authorBanach, Maciej
dc.contributor.authorBandosz, Piotr
dc.contributor.authorBanegas, Jose R
dc.contributor.authorBarbagallo, Carlo M.
dc.contributor.authorBarcelo, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorBarkat, Amina
dc.contributor.authorBarros, Aluisio J.D.
dc.contributor.authorBarros, Mauro V.G.
dc.contributor.authorBata, Iqbal
dc.contributor.authorBiehl, Anna Månsson
dc.contributor.authorBjertness, Espen
dc.contributor.authorBjertness, Marius Bergsmark
dc.contributor.authorEkelund, Ulf
dc.contributor.authorGraff-Iversen, Sidsel
dc.contributor.authorJanszky, Imre
dc.contributor.authorKolle, Elin
dc.contributor.authorKrokstad, Steinar
dc.contributor.authorLaugsand, Lars Erik
dc.contributor.authorMathiesen, Ellisiv B.
dc.contributor.authorMeisfjord, Jørgen Rajan
dc.contributor.authorMeyer, Haakon E
dc.contributor.authorSen, Abhijit
dc.contributor.authorSteene-Johannessen, Jostein
dc.contributor.authorVatten, Lars Johan
dc.contributor.authorWilsgaard, Tom
dc.identifier.citationThe Lancet. 2017, 390 (10113), 2627-2642.nb_NO
dc.description.abstractBackground Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleWorldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adultsnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.journalThe Lancetnb_NO
dc.description.localcode© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for samfunnsmedisin og sykepleie
cristin.unitnameHelseundersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for sirkulasjon og bildediagnostikk

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