Simulation Model of the Future Nordic Power Grid Considering the Impact of HVDC Links
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- Institutt for elkraftteknikk 
As Europe is shifting to an increasingly larger share of non-dispatchable renewable energy sources, the cross-border power flow changes. This thesis considers further development of an existing PowerFactory simulation model designed to fit with new power flow situations influencing the Nordic power system. Today, there are many HVDC links connecting Europe to the Nordic grid, and there are several new links being built and planned. The thesis work is a continuation of an earlier specialisation project and focuses on implementing all existing links and those currently planned to be commissioned by 2021 in a common model, giving a total HVDC exchange capacity of 11820 MW. In addition, four new links thought possible to be commissioned by 2030 are available in the model, giving an additional capacity of 7400 MW. To test the completed model, a contingency analysis has been performed to find the limits of what power exchange is possible without significant changes in the grid, and what is possible given the right upgrades. Four scenarios have been studied considering maximum import and export in 2021 and 2030. Results have also been verified by simulations. The analysis has proven that the model is flexible and can handle a large variation of power flow situations. For the 2021 high import scenario with reduced load, it is indicated that the full HVDC exchange of 11820 MW can be utilised for import, provided that some minor grid upgrades are implemented. For the same scenario, the export capacity is not more than 7170 MW. Without any further significant upgrades, the available import capacity for 2030 is 17280 MW. During contingency analysis it was shown that the Swedish grid is the primary limiting factor for export and the Norway was limiting for import. Results indicate that by significantly upgrading the Swedish grid, the export capacity can be up to 14200 MW, and by strengthening the South-Eastern Norwegian grid the import capacity can be up to 19220 MW.