History Matching of Production and 4D Seismic Data: - Application to the Norne Field
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History matching is the procedure to build a model as close as possible to nature. Reservoir models, constrained to seismic response, as well as flow response, can provide a better description of the reservoir and thus more reliable forecast. 4D seismic have the potential to provide the fluid contact with time, estimating the fault seal and locate the bypass fluids. This thesis focuses on history matching use production data and time-lapse seismic, with application to the Norne field in the Norwegian Sea.This work first describes a methodology for history matching. The parameters selected for study are permeability in x- and z-direction and fault transmissibility. The approach is manual and modified by trial and error procedure. Sensitivity analysis is applied before history matching. Results show the cumulative oil production profile has the great impact on permeability and fault transmissibility. Adjustment of permeability is used to track the oil near- and far from the wellbores and control the water movement between cells and to improve the water cut match. Fault transmissibilities are used to control the fluid flow direction and to guide the water flood.In the seismic interpretation study part, Time-lapse seismic surveys is used to qualitatively track the water-oil contact movement and helps to understand the flood direction. Time-lapse seismic surveys of the Norne field acquired in 2001 and 2004 is qualitaruvely used to test the accrurency of base case and modified simulation model.