Responses of Rat Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Nanocellulose with Different Functional Groups
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionACS Applied Bio Materials (AABM). 2023, 6 987-998. 10.1021/acsabm.2c00794
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are multiscale hydrophilic biocompatible polysaccharide materials derived from wood and plants. TEMPO-mediated oxidation of CNFs (TO-CNF) turns some of the primary hydroxyl groups to carboxylate and aldehyde groups. Unlike carboxylic functional groups, there is little or no information about the biological role of the aldehyde groups on the surface of wood-based CNFs. In this work, we replaced the aldehyde groups in the TO-CNF samples with carboxyl groups by another oxidation treatment (TO-O-CNF) or with primary alcohols with terminal hydroxyl groups by a reduction reaction (TO-R-CNF). Rat mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow were seeded on polystyrene tissue culture plates (TCP) coated with CNFs with and without aldehyde groups. TCP and TCP coated with bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) were used as control groups. Protein adsorption measurements demonstrated that more proteins were adsorbed from cell culture media on all CNF surfaces compared to BNC. Live/dead and lactate dehydrogenase assays confirmed that all nanocellulose biomaterials supported excellent cell viability. Interestingly, TO-R-CNF samples, which have no aldehyde groups, showed better cell spreading than BNC and comparable results to TCP. Unlike TO-O-CNF surfaces, which have no aldehyde groups either, TO-R-CNF stimulated cells, in osteogenic medium, to have higher alkaline phosphatase activity and to form more biomineralization than TCP and TO-CNF groups. These findings indicate that the presence of aldehyde groups (280 ± 14 μmol/g) on the surface of TEMPO-oxidized CNFs might have little or no effect on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.