Optimum scavenger concentrations for sonochemical nanoparticle synthesis
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionScientific Reports. 2023, 13 (1), 6183-?. 10.1038/s41598-023-33243-7
Maintaining nanoparticle properties when scaling up a chemical synthesis is challenging due to the complex interplay between reducing agents and precursors. A sonochemical synthesis route does not require the addition of reducing agents as they are instead being continuously generated in-situ by ultrasonic cavitation throughout the reactor volume. To optimize the sonochemical synthesis of nanoparticles, understanding the role of radical scavengers is paramount. In this work we demonstrate that optimum scavenger concentrations exist at which the rate of Ag-nanoparticle formation is maximized. Titanyl dosimetry experiments were used in conjunction with Ag-nanoparticle formation rates to determine these optimum scavenger concentrations. It was found that more hydrophobic scavengers require lower optimum concentrations with 1-butanol < 2-propanol < ethanol < methanol < ethylene glycol. However, the optimum concentration is shifted by an order of magnitude towards higher concentrations when pyrolytic decomposition products contribute to the reduction. The reduction rate is also enhanced considerably.