A Framework of Faster CRNN and VGG16-Enhanced Region Proposal Network for Detection and Grade Classification of Knee RA
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionDiagnostics (Basel). 2023, 13 (8), . 10.3390/diagnostics13081385
We developed a framework to detect and grade knee RA using digital X-radiation images and used it to demonstrate the ability of deep learning approaches to detect knee RA using a consensus-based decision (CBD) grading system. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency with which a deep learning approach based on artificial intelligence (AI) can find and determine the severity of knee RA in digital X-radiation images. The study comprised people over 50 years with RA symptoms, such as knee joint pain, stiffness, crepitus, and functional impairments. The digitized X-radiation images of the people were obtained from the BioGPS database repository. We used 3172 digital X-radiation images of the knee joint from an anterior–posterior perspective. The trained Faster-CRNN architecture was used to identify the knee joint space narrowing (JSN) area in digital X-radiation images and extract the features using ResNet-101 with domain adaptation. In addition, we employed another well-trained model (VGG16 with domain adaptation) for knee RA severity classification. Medical experts graded the X-radiation images of the knee joint using a consensus-based decision score. We trained the enhanced-region proposal network (ERPN) using this manually extracted knee area as the test dataset image. An X-radiation image was fed into the final model, and a consensus decision was used to grade the outcome. The presented model correctly identified the marginal knee JSN region with 98.97% of accuracy, with a total knee RA intensity classification accuracy of 99.10%, with a sensitivity of 97.3%, a specificity of 98.2%, a precision of 98.1%, and a dice score of 90.1% compared with other conventional models.