Eggshell-derived amorphous calcium phosphate: Synthesis, characterization and bio-functions as bone graft materials in novel 3D osteoblastic spheroids model
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A multitude of autogenous/allogeneic and semi-synthetic bone graft materials have been developed to reconstruct the defective bone tissue but with high bio-cost and potential environmental pollution. With high calcium content and several trace elements, chicken eggshells are no longer considered as wastes but attractive sources of high-value-added biomaterials. This study used chicken eggshells and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) to synthesize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) bone graft materials, namely Control and Eggshell. The physiochemical characteristics, biosafety, and immunocompatibility of synthetic ACP particles were inspected. Their osteogenic activity was further investigated in a novel osteoblastic spheroids model. Eggshell ACP particles exhibited ideal cytocompatibility compared to the control ACP and were more resistant to re-crystallization. In osteoblastic spheroids, Eggshell ACP mediated typical osteogenic mRNA profiles of MC-3T3-E1 cells, accompanied by the increased formation of mineralized nodules and boosted synthesis of ECM proteins represented by OPN and collagen I. This study establishes a promising technique to synthesize stable, safe, and osteoinductive ACP graft particles from eggshell waste. Furthermore, the osteoblastic spheroids constructed in the present study provide a more practical model for biomaterial research, which reflect the three-dimensional interaction between host bone tissue and graft materials more realistically.