Synthesis, characterization, and thermodynamic study of selected K-based zeolites
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionCement and Concrete Research. 2021, 148 . 10.1016/j.cemconres.2021.106537
Potassium-rich zeolites often occur in cementitious systems, as K+ is widespread in various cementitious materials, such as Portland, blended and alkali-activated cements. The knowledge of their stability and of thermodynamic models for solid solutions with Na+ and Ca2+ are critical to understand long-term development and durability in such cements. Completing previous studies on Na- and Ca-based zeolites, the current work aims to determine the thermodynamic data of 14 types of K-based zeolites, which could possibly form in cementitious systems. The zeolites were synthesized hydrothermally, exchanged with K+, and characterized thoroughly with respect to framework structures, elemental compositions, water contents, and bond variations. Their thermodynamic properties were derived from the experimental solubility data, which allowed establishing predominance diagrams in the K2O-SiO2-Al2O3-H2O system. The K-based zeolites typically showed the lowest solubility between 0 and 100 °C, with the notable exception of Ca-gismondine and two Na-based zeolites: natrolite and Na-mordenite.