A Systematic Review of the Variation in Pain Catastrophizing Scale Reference Scores Based on Language Version and Country in Patients with Chronic Primary (Non-specific) Pain
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionPain and Therapy. 2022, 11 (3), 753-769. 10.1007/s40122-022-00390-0
Introduction This systematic review aimed to investigate variations of reference scores for the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) between language versions and between countries in patients with chronic primary pain (CPP) or chronic primary pain, not otherwise specified (CPP-NOS). Methods Electronic searches of the Ovid/Embase, Ovid/MEDLINE, and Ovid/PsycINFO databases were conducted to retrieve studies assessing PCS scores in adults with CPP or CPP-NOS proposed by the International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Revision for any country where the translated PCS was available. The protocol for this systematic review was prospectively registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews 2018 (registration number: CRD 42018086719). Results A total of 3634 articles were screened after removal of duplicates. From these, 241 articles reporting on 32,282 patients with chronic pain were included in the review. The mean (± standard deviation) weighted PCS score across all articles was 25.04 ± 12.87. Of the 12 language versions and 21 countries included in the review, the weighted mean PCS score in Asian languages or Asian countries was significantly higher than that in English, European, and other languages or Western and other countries. The highest mean score of the weighted PCS based on language was in Japanese (mean 33.55), and the lowest was in Russian (mean 20.32). The highest mean score of the weighted PCS based on country was from Japan (mean 33.55), and the lowest was from Australia (mean 19.80). Conclusion The weighted PCS scores for people with CPP or CPP-NOS were significantly higher in Asian language versions/Asian countries than in English, European and other language versions or Western and other countries.