Penalty feet positioning rule modification and laterality effect on soccer goalkeepers’ diving kinematics
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionScientific Reports. 2022, 12 (1), . 10.1038/s41598-022-21508-6
In 2019, a new rule was applied in soccer. It allows the goalkeeper to have only one foot or part of it on the goal line when the kicker hits the ball, unlike the previous rule that determined the goalkeeper should have both feet on the line. The purpose of the present study was to analyze how the change in the rule and the lower limbs laterality influences on the diving save kinematic performance in penalties. Six goalkeepers, two professionals and four amateurs, performed a total of 20 dives in the laboratory and had their force and impulse exerted by the lower limb and displacement/velocity data from the center of body mass collected through force plates and kinematic analysis. The side preference was collected through an inventory. The results showed that goalkeepers dive further (p < 0.001) and faster (p < 0.001) when diving according to the new rule. Dives for the non-dominant side presented higher values than the trials for the dominant side in mediolateral (p = 0.02) and resultant (p = 0.03) displacements. Concluding, the goalkeepers performed better with the new rule in the analyzed variables and the lower limb preference has influenced only the mediolateral and resultant displacement.