Frequency controlled agglomeration of pt-nanoparticles in sonochemical synthesis
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionUltrasonics sonochemistry. 2022, 85 . 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.105991
Optimizing the surface area of nanoparticles is key to achieving high catalytic activities for electrochemical energy conversion devices. In this work, the frequency range (200 kHz–500 kHz) for maximum sonochemical radical formation was investigated for the sonochemical synthesis of Pt-nanoparticles to assess whether an optimum frequency exists or if the entire range provides reproducible particle properties. Through physical and electrochemical characterization, it was found that the frequency dependent mechanical effects of ultrasound resulted in smaller, more open agglomerates at lower frequencies with agglomerate sizes of (238 4) nm at 210 kHz compared to (274 2) nm at 326 kHz, and electrochemical surface areas of (12.4 0.9) m2g−1 at 210 kHz compared to (3.4 0.5) m2g−1 at 326 kHz. However, the primary particle size (2.1 nm) and the catalytic activity towards hydrogen evolution, (19 2) mV at 10 mA cm−2, remained unchanged over the entire frequency range. Highly reproducible Pt-nanoparticles are therefore easily attainable within a broad range of ultrasonic frequencies for the sonochemical synthesis route.