Blood Glucose Level Prediction Using Subcutaneous Sensors for in Vivo Study: Compensation for Measurement Method Slow Dynamics Using a Kalman Filter Approach
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The continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system is the most common system used by people with type 1 diabetes to monitor blood glucose levels. However, it measures glucose in interstitial fluid in subcutaneous tissue rather than directly in plasma. Measuring blood glucose level in this method has slow dynamics and introduce a time lag in capturing the blood glucose level. This can reduce the quality of blood glucose regulation and result in hypo- or hyperglycemia. In this paper, a linear Kalman filter is developed to predict blood glucose concentration using CGM data to compensate for that slow dynamics. To this end, an observable input-less model describing the glucose diffusion from plasma to interstitial fluid is utilized. Notably, this model is physiology-based, and its parameters can be obtained from the literature. The designed structure is evaluated on data from two animal experiments conducted on anesthetized pigs. The data sets include CGM measurements every 1.2 seconds and sporadic blood sample analysis during experiments. Results show that the designed approach sufficiently can compensate for the slow dynamics of CGM measurements when compared to blood glucose samples, and the performance is measured using statistical accuracy scores. This compensation can improve the decision-making of control algorithms for glucose regulation during rapid changes in glucose concentration, e.g., during meals and exercise.