Targeted drug delivery for cardiovascular disease: Modeling of modulated extracellular vesicle release rates
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Original versionIEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience. 2021, 20 (4), 444-454. 10.1109/TNB.2021.3097698
Invasive and medical therapy has led to major improvements in cardiovascular disease management, but important challenges remain open. The discovery of a nano-sized system of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is opening new possibilities for reprogramming malfunctioning cells and indicates that EVs can be employed in therapeutic biomedical applications as engineered drug vehicles. Molecular communication (MC) has applications for treating cells with directed drug delivery, employing special targeting transmembrane proteins. In this paper, we propose a novel drug delivery system for cardiovascular diseases using an EV-mediated MC platform and exemplify the potential use in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We utilize intracellular calcium signaling as a natural mediator of EVs released from synthetic cells and model the release rate. We propose to use the cells as a therapeutic release system with a control signal input which modulates the EVs release rate as the output signal. We also study the frequency domain of the proposed model and estimate the transfer function of the therapeutic release system model numerically where the root-mean-square error for two separate estimated output signals are 0.0353 and 0.0124. The proposed EV-mediated targeted drug delivery system can make breakthroughs in future healthcare, in cardiovascular and other diseases where targeting is required.