Crosstalk Between Cancer Associated Fibroblasts and Cancer Cells in Scirrhous Type Gastric Cancer
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause among all cancer deaths globally. Although the treatment outcome of GC has improved, the survival of patients with GC at stages III and IV remains unsatisfactory. Among several types of GC, scirrhous type GC (SGC) shows highly aggressive growth and invasive activity, leading to frequent peritoneal metastasis. SGC is well known to accompany abundant stromal cells that compose the tumor microenvironment (TME) along with the produced extracellular matrix (ECM) and secreted factors. One of the main stromal components is cancer associated fibroblast (CAF). In the SGC microenvironment, CAFs are a source of various secreted factors, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which mediate prominent tumor-stimulating activity. In turn, cancer cells also secrete numerous factors, which can activate and educate CAFs. Current findings suggest that cancer cells and stromal cells communicate interactively via the soluble factors, the ECM, and likely also by exosomes. In this review, we focus on the soluble factors mediating communication between cancer cells and CAFs in SGC, and consider how they are related to the modulation of TME and the high rate of peritoneal metastasis. At last, we discuss the perspectives on targeting these communication pathways for improved future treatment.