Prior Prognostic Expectations as a Potential Predictor in Neurofeedback Training
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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The present study evaluated whether subjects’ expectations and neurofeedback training performance predict neurofeedback efficacy in cognitive training by controlling both factors as statistical variables. Twenty-two psychology students underwent neurofeedback training, employing beta/theta protocol to enhance beta1 power (13–21 Hz) and suppress theta (4–7 Hz) power. Neurofeedback efficacy was evaluated by behavioral components measured on pre-tests and post-tests employing a visual continuous performance task. The results revealed a significant interaction term between change in reaction time from pre-test to post-test and expectancy effect, indicating that participants with high prognostic expectations showed better improvement in reaction time scores. The data did not reveal that actual neurofeedback performance influenced the post-test measurements of the visual continuous performance task. No significant differences were found for reaction time variability, omission, or commission errors. Possible factors contributing to the results are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.