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dc.contributor.authorCalvete, Juan J.
dc.contributor.authorLomonte, Bruno
dc.contributor.authorSaviola, Anthony J.
dc.contributor.authorBonilla, Fabián
dc.contributor.authorSasa, Mahmood
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, David J.
dc.contributor.authorUndheim, Eivind Andreas Baste
dc.contributor.authorSunagar, Kartik
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Timothy N.W.
dc.identifier.citationToxicon: X. 2021, 9-10 1-16.en_US
dc.description.abstractSnakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that may claim over 100,000 human lives annually worldwide. Snakebite occurs as the result of an interaction between a human and a snake that elicits either a defensive response from the snake or, more rarely, a feeding response as the result of mistaken identity. Snakebite envenoming is therefore a biological and, more specifically, an ecological problem. Snake venom itself is often described as a “cocktail”, as it is a heterogenous mixture of molecules including the toxins (which are typically proteinaceous) responsible for the pathophysiological consequences of envenoming. The primary function of venom in snake ecology is pre-subjugation, with defensive deployment of the secretion typically considered a secondary function. The particular composition of any given venom cocktail is shaped by evolutionary forces that include phylogenetic constraints associated with the snake's lineage and adaptive responses to the snake's ecological context, including the taxa it preys upon and by which it is predated upon. In the present article, we describe how conceptual frameworks from ecology and evolutionary biology can enter into a mutually enlightening relationship with clinical toxinology by enabling the consideration of snakebite envenoming from an “ecological stance”. We detail the insights that may emerge from such a perspective and highlight the ways in which the high-fidelity descriptive knowledge emerging from applications of -omics era technologies – “venomics” and “antivenomics” – can combine with evolutionary explanations to deliver a detailed understanding of this multifactorial health crisis.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleMutual enlightenment: A toolbox of concepts and methods for integrating evolutionary and clinical toxinology via snake venomics and the contextual stanceen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.source.journalToxicon: Xen_US
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 287462en_US
dc.description.localcode© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.en_US

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal