Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryos are highly sensitive to short-term 3,4-dichloroaniline exposure
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionToxicology reports. 2021, 8 1754-1761. 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.10.006
3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) is one of the most widely produced anilines world-wide, used in plastic packaging, fabrics, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, dyes and paints as well as being a degradation product of several pesticides. 3,4-DCA has been detected in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Although freshwater toxicity thresholds exist, very little toxicological information is available on marine and cold-water species. In this study, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryos (3–7 days post fertilization) to 3,4-DCA concentrations ranging from 8−747 μg/L for 4 days followed by a recovery period in clean sea water until 14 days post fertilization (dpf). The cod embryos were significantly more sensitive to acute 3,4-DCA exposure compared to other species tested and reported in the literature. At the highest concentration (747 μg/L), no embryos survived until hatch, and even at the lowest concentration (8 μg/L), a small, but significant increase in mortality was observed at 14 dpf. Delayed and concentration-dependent effects on surviving yolk-sac larvae, manifested as cardiac, developmental and morphometric alterations, more than a week after exposure suggest potential long-term effects of transient embryonic exposure to low concentrations of 3,4-DCA.