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dc.contributor.authorThorvaldsen, Kasper Emil
dc.contributor.authorKorpås, Magnus
dc.contributor.authorLindberg, Karen Byskov
dc.contributor.authorFarahmand, Hossein
dc.description.abstractThe primary objective of Zero Emission Buildings (ZEBs) is to achieve net zero emission over the buildings’ lifetime. To achieve this goal, accurate cost-effective emission compensation is needed during the operational phase. This paper presents a stochastic planning model comprising an emission inventory for the operation of ZEBs. The operational planning methodology uses stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) to analyze and represent the expected future cost curve (EFCC) for operation based on the electricity price and accumulated 𝐶𝑂2𝑒𝑞 -inventory during the year. Failing to compensate for net zero emission makes the leftover amount subject to a penalty cost at the end of the year. This renders the overall problem multi-objective optimization including emission compensation and cost of operation. The model is applied to a case study of a Norwegian building, tested for a range of penalty costs for leftover 𝐶𝑂2𝑒𝑞 -inventory. The results show that, for a ZEB, including emission compensation demonstrates a significant impact on the operation of the building. The penalty cost puts a limit on how much the operational cost increase for additional compensation should be, influencing the end 𝐶𝑂2𝑒𝑞 -inventory. Increasing penalty costs decreases the end inventory, and a penalty cost of 10 𝐸𝑈𝑅 𝑘𝑔𝐶𝑂2𝑒𝑞 resulted in zero emission. The case achieving zero emission had an operational cost increase of 4.8% compared to operating without a penalty cost. This shows the importance of accounting for emissions during the operation of a ZEB, and the value of having an operational strategy that presents the future impact of operation.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleA stochastic operational planning model for a zero emission building with emission compensationen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.source.journalApplied Energyen_US
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 257626en_US
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 257660en_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal