Non-domestic building typologies - Systematic selection criteria for case studies for improved energy efficiency in management and use
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This master’s thesis highlights the importance of management and use in relation to energy efficiency in existing non-domestic buildings. The purpose of the master’s thesis is to study the energy efficiency of existing nondomestic buildings through a focus on the gap between expected and actual energy use and management and use. The aim is to contribute to close the gap between expected and actual energy use in existing non-domestic buildings, while providing knowledge of management and use of such buildings. The master’s thesis study Realfagbygget (university and college building) and Miljøbygget (office building) in a case study to examine how expected energy use is calculated, how energy use is measured and factors that impact energy use – especially in terms of management and use of the buildings. The two buildings was selected through a systematic selection method. There has been conducted interviews to support the case study. Both the case study and the interviews has been conducted in Trondheim. The gap between expected and actual energy use is presented for the two buildings with possible causes and solutions. There has been conducted a literature study to collect and form a foundation of relevant theory and literature. The literature study and the case study is analysed to answer a thesis question which is supported by three research questions. The master’s thesis shows that there is a gap between expected and actual energy use for the two existing nondomestic buildings in the case study. This is related to how the expected energy use is calculated, which is based on historical figures of actual energy use. Actual energy use is measured with energy monitoring devices which communicate the energy data to a building management system and a energy monitoring system. There are several impact factors that affect the actual energy use which is both related the facilities management of the buildings, the users, their user behavior and user patterns, but also other factors. There is presented several barriers against energy efficiency, but also approaches to energy efficiency such as energy management, monitoring, visibility and communication across the organizations, among others. The gap, with related causes and solutions is based on this and is consistent with the conclusion. Since the impact on actual energy use depend on various factors that are associated with varying uncertainties to what extent the factors will affect each specific year, it can be concluded that there always will be some degree of uncertainty to the expected and actual energy use, that will result in some degree of gap.