No impact of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy complications in women with PCOS, regardless of GDM criteria used
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the presence of insulin resistance, and women with PCOS have high prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM). Both conditions have been associated with increased risk for pregnancy complications such as preterm birth, preeclampsia and increased offspring birth weight. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of GDM in women with PCOS using both previous and new diagnostic criteria, and to analyse whether the risk of pregnancy complications increased with the presence of GDM. In addition, we aimed to assess the response to metformin treatment in PCOS women with GDM. We performed post-hoc analysis of three prospective, double blinded studies of altogether 791 pregnant women with PCOS randomized to either metformin or placebo treatment from first trimester to delivery. Glucose data allowing GDM classification after previous (WHO 1999) and new (WHO 2013 and Norwegian 2017) diagnostic criteria were available for 722 of the women. Complications such as preeclampsia, late miscarriage and preterm birth, birth weight and gestational age were correlated to the presence of GDM and metformin treatment. The prevalence of GDM was 28.3% (WHO 1999), 41.2% (WHO 2013) and 27.2% (Norwegian 2017). Having GDM already in first trimester associated with increased risk for late miscarriage (p<0.01). Having GDM according to newer criteria correlated to increased maternal age and BMI (p<0.001). Otherwise, having GDM (any criteria) correlated neither to the development of preeclampsia, nor to birth weight z-score or the proportion of offspring being large for gestational weight. Maternal age and BMI, parity and gestational weight gain, but not GDM or metformin treatment, were determinants for birth weight z-score. Conclusion: in pregnant women with PCOS, having GDM did not increase the risk for other pregnancy complications except for an increased risk for late miscarriage among those with GDM already in the first trimester.