Vascular risk factor is shown to be associated with increased risk of development of dementia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has demonstrated the ability to detect early changes in neuronal activation before cognitive changes is measured. We explored the relationship between number of vascular risk factors (VRF) and neuronal activation measured with fMRI using a N-back task testing for working memory (WM). We investigated whether number of VRF was associated with change in neuronal activation in the brain measured with task-based fMRI. 68 cognitive healthy elderly completed a fMRI examination, Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), clinical dementia rating (CDR) and medical examination. Vascular risk factors included were stable coronary artery disease or cerebrovascular disease according to MRI criteria, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and overweight. Lower number of VRF (n=2) revealed higher neuronal activation than the groups with higher number of VRF (n=3, n=4). The regional activated clusters in the VRF2 group showed activation in superior parietal lobule, visual cortex, premotor cortex, Broca´s area and anterior intra-parietal sulcus. Our results demonstrated a lower activation with increasing number of VRF and suggest altered neuronal functioning present in ageing cognitive healthy people as a potentially early stage of developing dementia.