Relationships of multiple landscape services and their influencing factors on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
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Original versionLandscape Ecology. 2020, . 10.1007/s10980-020-01140-3
Context Constructing a sustainable landscape pattern from the perspective of landscape sustainability is scientifically built on the clarification of the formation mechanisms of landscape services and their relationships. However, the trade-offs and synergies of landscape services have regional heterogeneity, and their influencing factors are largely unknown in polar ecosystem. The Qinghai–Tibet Plateau is a unique but fragile ecosystem, and its landscape services are vital components to the sustainability in this specific polar region. Objectives This study sought to understand the landscape service relationships, their dynamics and influencing factors, and achieve a sustainable landscape management in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Methods In this work, we evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution and relationships of multiple landscape services including soil retention (SR), water yield (WY), habitat quality (HQ), crop supply (CS) and livestock supply (LS). We further identified temperature, elevation, population size, land use and land cover (LULC) as influencing factors on landscape services relationships within specific landscape gradients. Results Our results show that: (1) SR, WY and HQ decreased significantly from the southeast to the northwest. (2) Regulating services-supporting services are mainly identified as synergies, and CS–HQ and CS–LS are manifested as trade-offs. (3) Geophysical factors (temperature, altitude) have impact on the distribution of CS and the trade-off and synergistic dynamics of WY–HQ, increased population size enhances CS–HQ trade-offs, while between supporting and regulating services show trade-offs in high-coverage grassland and unused land. Conclusions The quantitative assessment of landscape services and relationships provides the basis for sustainable landscape management in the context of national policies and climate change.