Robust planning of distributed battery energy storage systems in flexible smart distribution networks: A comprehensive study
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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This paper presents a robust planning of distributed battery energy storage systems (DBESSs) from the viewpoint of distribution system operator (DSO) to increase the network flexibility. Initially, the deterministic model of the proposed problem is expressed by minimizing the difference between the DBESS planning, degradation and operation (charging) costs and the revenue of DBESS from selling its stored energy subject to the constraints of AC power flow equations in the presence of RESs and DBESSs, and technical limits of the network indexes, variable renewable energy sources (vRESs) and DBESSs. This problem is modeled as a non-linear programming (NLP), then, an equivalent linear programming (LP) model is proposed using the first-order expansion of Taylor's series for linearization of power flow equations and a polygon for linearization of circular inequalities. Also, to model the uncertain parameters in the proposed problem including forecasted active and reactive loads, energy and charging/discharging prices and the output power of vRES, the bounded uncertainty-based robust optimization (BURO) framework is proposed in the next step. Finally, the proposed scheme is applied to 19-bus MV CIGRE benchmark grid by GAMS software to investigate the capability and efficiency of the model.