Ultrasound as a non-invasive tool for monitoring reproductive physiology in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPhysiological Reports. 2018, 6:e13640 (9), 1-13. 10.14814/phy2.13640
Aiming to explore ultrasound technology as a noninvasive method for maturation monitoring, we compared ultrasound observations and measurements in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the last year before ovulation with standard, invasive methods such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonad histology and sex hormone analysis. Ultrasound measurements of ovaries correlated strongly (R > 0.9, P < 0.01) with ovary weight and GSI, and could be used as a noninvasive tool for GSI estimation. Using ultrasound, we were able to identify females with advanced oocyte development and elevated sex hormone and GSI levels earlier than previously observed. Histological studies confirmed these observations showing oocyte yolk accumulation 10 months before ovulation and 8 months before significant increase in sex hormones. Levels of the sex hormone 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) indicated a new role of this hormone at final maturation in salmon females. We propose the use of ultrasound as an alternative method to traditionally used invasive methods during sexual maturation monitoring in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon broodstock populations. Eliminating sacrifice of valuable broodfish, and reducing handling stress, would improve animal welfare in present-day broodstock management.