A Current Controlled Virtual Synchronous Machine Adapted for Operation under Unbalanced Conditions
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This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of control strategies for operation of a Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) under unbalanced conditions in both grid-connected and islanded mode. The basis for the evaluation is a Current Controlled VSM where a quasi-stationary virtual impedance emulates a simplified positive sequence electrical model of a synchronous machine. It is shown how three general strategies can be selected for controlling the negative sequence currents: 1) calculation of the negative sequence current references according to the desired active and reactive power flow characteristics, 2) applying a negative sequence virtual impedance resulting in unbalanced currents as in the steady-state response of a synchronous machine, or 3) operation with a negative sequence voltage controller for eliminating unbalances in the locally measured voltages. For the first approach, three objectives for shaping the power flow characteristics can be selected: I) balanced three-phase currents, II) constant instantaneous active power flow, or III) constant instantaneous reactive power flow. Comprehensive simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance and applicability under grid connected and islanded operation. The results demonstrate how utilization of the negative sequence currents to control the power flow characteristics is only applicable for grid connected operation, while the other two approaches can be utilized in both islanded and grid-connected modes. However, closed loop control for balancing the local voltages depends on a high equivalent grid impedance and is not suitable for operation in strong grid conditions.