RNA metabolism guided by RNA modifications: The role of SMUG1 in rRNA quality control
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionBiomolecules. 2021, 11:76 (1), 1-22. 10.3390/biom11010076
RNA modifications are essential for proper RNA processing, quality control, and maturation steps. In the last decade, some eukaryotic DNA repair enzymes have been shown to have an ability to recognize and process modified RNA substrates and thereby contribute to RNA surveillance. Single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1) is a base excision repair enzyme that not only recognizes and removes uracil and oxidized pyrimidines from DNA but is also able to process modified RNA substrates. SMUG1 interacts with the pseudouridine synthase dyskerin (DKC1), an enzyme essential for the correct assembly of small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing. Here, we review rRNA modifications and RNA quality control mechanisms in general and discuss the specific function of SMUG1 in rRNA metabolism. Cells lacking SMUG1 have elevated levels of immature rRNA molecules and accumulation of 5-hydroxymethyluridine (5hmU) in mature rRNA. SMUG1 may be required for post-transcriptional regulation and quality control of rRNAs, partly by regulating rRNA and stability.