Multi-objective mixture design of cemented paste backfill using particle swarm optimisation algorithm
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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In order to achieve a successful cemented paste backfill (CPB) mixture design, multiple project requirements such as strength, flowability and cost should be met. For this achievement, the key design parameters, solid content (SD) and cement percentage (C), should be well adjusted. With increasing the amount of cement in the mixture, CPB strength and production cost increase together, whereas the workability decreases. In order to reduce the cost, more tailings can be added while keeping the cement amount the same but this will reduce both strength and workability. Therefore, CPB design is in fact a multi-objective optimisation problem. In this study, the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm is used to design CPB mixture meeting multiple objectives. PSO identifies the optimum set of SD and C yielding in desired strength and workability with a minimum cost. The proposed workflow can be a useful and practical for multiple decision making where CPB designers face strength-workability-cost paradox. In addition to reducing the number of trial experiments, the multi objective mixture design of CPB also provides the optimum use of materials to reduce the incurred costs and ensure cleaner and more sustainable production.