A two-level over-voltage control strategy in distribution networks with high PV penetration
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Over-voltage in low voltage feeders due to the increasing penetration level of photovoltaic (PV) is a crucial issue to be addressed. There is a need to use more advanced voltage control methods to satisfy the response time of the control system. In this paper, a two-level voltage control strategy is presented. In the first level, based on day-ahead PV production scenario, Both the on-load tap changer (OLTC) and the battery energy storage systems (ESSs) are applied to deal with over-voltage in the peak of PV generation and as well the voltage drop in the peak of demand. In this level, the batteries and the tap position of the feeder transformer are optimally set in order to improve the voltage profile for the entire planning horizon (next day) taking into account the uncertainties in the PV production. In the second level, based on the partitioning of the distribution network, reactive power compensation capability of PV inverters is employed to fine-tune the voltage profile for the next operating hour. To model the uncertainty pertaining to the output power of PV units, the parameters of beta distribution function are estimated for each hour time interval, and then Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate daily scenarios. In order to reduce the complexities and computational burden, the linearized model of power flow equations and PV inverters have been implemented. A real and practical, 10 kV, 37-bus system is used to test the performance of the proposed method.