Review of Sprayability of Wet Sprayed Concrete
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionNordic Concrete Research. 2020, 63 (2), 21-42. 10.2478/ncr-2020-0016
Wet sprayed concrete quality is affected by more production factors than cast concrete, particularly due to the propulsion through the nozzle and the flash set caused by the set accelerator. Practitioners often use the term “sprayability” to describe these factors. We propose a definition of “sprayability” that relates the application to the final properties of the hardened sprayed concrete and review factors affecting it: concrete constituents, proportioning, and application mechanics. These factors affect the hardening and the structure of the hardened sprayed concrete – the porosity, permeability and durability. We consider improving sustainability through proportioning with increased share of supplementary cementitious materials, calculate the placed composition and focus on factors that affect water transport, and hence durability. Due to the spray application and flash-set, irregular compaction voids dominate the macro pore structure of sprayed concrete. Studies of permeability of sprayed concrete have shown that it is possible to obtain low permeabilities given adequate composition and curing. Presumably these samples have been wellcured, uncracked and with non-percolating macro voids. Given observations of cracks in sprayed concrete linings and the macro voids, important further studies will be on the effect of accelerator, compaction porosity and cracking on permeability.