Representing decision-makers in SGAM-H: the Smart Grid Architecture Model Extended with the Human Layer
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The safety and security of critical infrastructures is both a technical and a social issue. However, most risk analysis methods focus predominantly on technical aspects and ignore the impact strategic human decisions have on the behavior of systems. Furthermore, the high degree of complexity and lack of historical data for probability estimations in case of new and emerging systems seriously limit the practical utility of traditional risk analysis methods. The Conflicting Incentives Risk Analysis (CIRA) method concentrates on human decisionmakers to address these problems. However, the method’s applicability is restricted by the fact that humans are not represented in the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) which is the industry’s most well-known model of the Smart Grid ecosystem. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to establish a connection between CIRA and SGAM by proposing the SGAM-H, an enhanced version of the original architecture model complemented by the Human Layer. The development and evaluation of the artifact is guided by the Design Science Research methodology. The evaluation presents a working example of applying the CIRA method on a scenario involving intra-organizational risks at a Distribution System Operator. The key benefit of the SGAM-H is that it enables the construction of a common understanding among stakeholders about risks related to key decision-makers, which is a fundamental first step towards forming a more complete picture about potential issues affecting the electric grids of the future.