Preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT tumor markers outperform MRI-based markers for the prediction of lymph node metastases in primary endometrial cancer
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionEuropean Radiology. 2020, 30 (5), 2443-2453. 10.1007/s00330-019-06622-w
Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI tumor markers for prediction of lymph node metastases (LNM) and aggressive disease in endometrial cancer (EC). Methods Preoperative whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT and pelvic MRI were performed in 215 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed EC. PET/CT-based tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and PET-positive lymph nodes (LNs) (SUVmax > 2.5) were analyzed together with the MRI-based tumor volume (VMRI), mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean), and MRI-positive LN (maximum short-axis diameter ≥ 10 mm). Imaging parameters were explored in relation to surgicopathological stage and tumor grade. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated yielding optimal cutoff values for imaging parameters, and regression analyses were used to assess their diagnostic performance for prediction of LNM and progression-free survival. Results For prediction of LNM, MTV yielded the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) (AUC = 0.80), whereas VMRI had lower AUC (AUC = 0.72) (p = 0.03). Furthermore, MTV > 27 ml yielded significantly higher specificity (74%, p < 0.001) and accuracy (75%, p < 0.001) and also higher odds ratio (12.2) for predicting LNM, compared with VMRI > 10 ml (58%, 62%, and 9.7, respectively). MTV > 27 ml also tended to yield higher sensitivity than PET-positive LN (81% vs 50%, p = 0.13). Both VMRI > 10 ml and MTV > 27 ml were significantly associated with reduced progression-free survival. Conclusions Tumor markers from 18F-FDG PET/CT outperform MRI markers for the prediction of LNM. MTV > 27 ml yields a high diagnostic performance for predicting aggressive disease and represents a promising supplement to conventional PET/CT reading in EC.