Prevalence, clustering and combined effects of lifestyle behaviours and their association with health after retirement age in a prospective cohort study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionBMC Public Health. 2020, 20 (900), 10.1186/s12889-020-08993-y
Background Lifestyle behaviours are potential risk factors for disease and mortality, but less is known about the association with health in retirement age. The aim of this paper was to study the prevalence, clustering and combined effects of lifestyle behaviours and their association with health outcomes in the first decade after retirement in a Norwegian cohort. Methods Participants were 55–64-year-olds at baseline in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey 2 (HUNT2, 1995–97) who also participated in HUNT3 (2006–08). Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association of daily smoking, physical inactivity, risky alcohol consumption, disturbed sleep duration, excessive sitting time and low social participation before retirement with self-rated health (n = 4022), life satisfaction (n = 5134), anxiety (n = 4461) and depression (n = 5083) after retirement, 11 years later. Results Low social participation and physical inactivity were the most prevalent lifestyle behaviours (41.1 and 40.6%). Risky alcohol consumption and disturbed sleep were the lifestyle behaviours most strongly associated with poor self-rated health, poor life satisfaction and anxiety after retirement (OR’s = 1.39–1.92). Physical inactivity was additionally associated with depression (OR = 1.44 (1.12–1.85)). Physical inactivity had the largest population attributable fractions for reducing poor self-rated health and depression (14.9 and 8.8%). An increasing number of lifestyle risk behaviours incrementally increased the risk for the adverse health outcomes. Conclusions Risky alcohol consumption and disturbed sleep duration were most strongly associated with poor health outcomes after retirement age. On a population level, increased physical activity before retirement had the largest potential for reducing adverse health outcomes after retirement age.