GPS data utilization for presenting punctuality information in railways
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In transportation, following by safety, punctuality issue has a major emphasis on customer satisfaction. Therefore, railway punctuality improvement is essential to keep the quality in desired level. Technological improvements enable information collection methods that were not available before. Literature searches show that one of the punctuality collection techniques is Global Positioning System. To find out how to present punctuality information by using GPS data, was the first purpose of the thesis. Literature review was conducted to see previous study outcomes and have informative baseline about the subject. The thesis results indicated that in literature search part, GPS data is used for punctuality improvement indirectly with a combination of other systems. To be able to present punctuality information by using GPS data, timetable information was associated with GPS data collection points. Delays were calculated on each point and average delays were presented by graphs. Visualization of the GPS data, by using coordinate, altitude, time and distance information, was also performed to see train motions in its exact locations. Results were showed that punctuality can be measured not only on station points but also between them. Therefore average delay path along the train route can be seen. Some of the delays were linear among station points. These were eliminated from further analysis. However some of them show variability. The second purpose of the thesis was to create an illustration that shows how GPS data can be used to analyse selected punctuality issue. Selected delay causes were tried to be matched in specific delay locations which were already determined with graphs. Then illustration was created in a generalized perspective. The last purpose of the thesis was to represent strengths and weaknesses of using GPS data compared to signal system data. Findings from data analysis and literature reviews were combined to present strengths and weaknesses. The most important findings were indicated that GPS data has continuous information along the train route whereas signal system data has the information only on station points. Due to this characteristic of GPS data it is possible to see delay changes among the stations, not only on station points. In addition visualization of the GPS data was also possible along the route. The most important weaknesses of using GPS data found out that the volume of the data is extensive when it is compared to TIOS data. Analysis of the data requires time and labor work. Another finding was that GPS data cannot be collected in the same locations each time. Collection point locations differ depending on the train speed. This creates difficulty in terms of matching and analysing the data whereas TIOS data is always collected on the same points.