Game Elements for Organizational Use: A quantitative study of player preferences
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The use of games for ?serious? purposes is one of many issues receiving growing attention in research. Games are changing society in new ways, and the birth of the modern video game has spurred its own highly dynamic global industry and emerging field of research with increasing interest among academics. Play is a natural instinct of man, and work a natural element of modern society. The two seem to have opposed each other in recent history, but the distinctions between the two are now becoming less clear. Games have a unique ability to engage and immerse the players, and play and game elements seem to represent a significant opportunity for improving productivity and well-being in a broad spectrum of organizations, and hence perhaps the next step in the evolution of work.This study is a specific contribution to understanding the preference of game elements to improve the work experience in organizations. The research questions address what game elements are preferred by players, and what the relationships are between player attributes and game elements. A quantitative research design was used to answer these questions, specifically consisting of statistical analyses of 779 responses of a self-completion questionnaire distributed at The Gathering, the largest annual event dedicated to communal play and gaming in Norway.The analyses show that players have clear preferences for game elements, and that there is a strong relationship between player attributes and player preference for game elements. Especially the player?s level of experience and type of motivation are related to an increased preference for several game elements, implicating the importance of determining these player attributes to enhance the game experience. Implications for theory and management are given based on the research findings. For theory, the MDANC framework of game elements, and components for player motivation compatible with the framework, are proposed. In addition, theoretical implications from player preferences and relationships between player attributes and game elements are given. For management, implications regard the main applications of game elements in organizations, including use for improved work experience, motivation, learning, and innovation, and how these elements might be implemented.