A schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors
Espín, Silvia; Andevski, Jovan; Duke, Guy; Eulaers, Igor; Gomez-Ramirez, Pilar; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Helander, Björn; Herzke, Dorte; Jaspers, Veerle; Krone, Oliver; Lourenco, Rui; Maria-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez-López, Emma; Mateo, Rafael; Movalli, Paola; Sanchez-Virosta, Pablo; Shore, Richard F.; Sonne, Christian; van den Brink, Nico W.; van Hattum, B.; Vrezec, Al; Wernham, Chris; García-Fernández, Antonio J.
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Birds of prey, owls and falcons are widely used as sentinel species in raptor biomonitoring programmes. A major current challenge is to facilitate large-scale biomonitoring by coordinating contaminant monitoring activities and by building capacity across countries. This requires sharing, dissemination and adoption of best practices addressed by the Networking Programme Research and Monitoring for and with Raptors in Europe (EURAPMON) and now being advanced by the ongoing international COST Action European Raptor Biomonitoring Facility. The present perspective introduces a schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors. We provide guidance on sample collection with a view to increasing sampling capacity across countries, ensuring appropriate quality of samples and facilitating harmonization of procedures to maximize the reliability, comparability and interoperability of data. The here presented protocol can be used by professionals and volunteers as a standard guide to ensure harmonised sampling methods for contaminant monitoring in raptors.