Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Survival in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a risk factor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and the most common indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Yet, whether GERD or endoscopy practice influence survival in EAC is largely unknown and was assessed in our study.This nationwide cohort study included all Swedish residents diagnosed with EAC in 1997–2013 with follow‐up to 2018. Exposures were history of GERD and endoscopies prior to EAC. The main outcome was EAC‐specific 5‐year mortality. Multivariable Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Among 6,600 EAC patients (79.3% males, median age 70 years) followed for 9,138 person‐years, 440 (6.7%) had GERD and 592 (9.0%) had ≥1 endoscopy before EAC diagnosis. GERD was associated with a decreased risk of mortality (adjusted HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64–0.80), which was only slightly attenuated by adjustment for prior endoscopies (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70–0.90), and further adjustments also for tumor stage and surgical resection (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.62–0.89). Compared to EAC patients without prior endoscopy, mortality was unchanged in GERD patients having undergone 1 or 2 endoscopies before EAC diagnosis (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.80–1.31, for 1 endoscopy; HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.63–1.30, for 2 endoscopies), while the mortality was decreased in patients with ≥3 endoscopies (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36–0.85). Our study indicates that GERD may be associated with a better prognosis in the event of EAC; however, the use of endoscopy screening has a limited impact on survival unless performed very frequently.