Activation of chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712 by ethanol shock: Insights from the promoter fusion studies
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionMicrobial Cell Factories. 2016, 15 (85), . 10.1186/s12934-016-0484-9
Background Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712 produces antibiotics chloramphenicol (Cml) and jadomycin (Jad) in response to nutrient limitation and ethanol shock (ES), respectively. Biosynthesis of Cml and Jad was shown to be reciprocally regulated via the action of regulatory proteins JadR1 and JadR2 encoded by the jad cluster, and mechanism of such regulation has been characterized. However, detailed analysis of the regulatory mechanism controlling Cml biosynthesis is still lacking. Results In the present study, several promoters from the cml cluster were fused to the reporter gene gusA. Reporter protein activity and Cml production were assayed in the wild-type strain with and without ES, followed by similar experiments with the jadR1 deletion mutant. The latter gene was earlier reported to negatively control Cml biosynthesis, while serving as a positive regulator for the jad cluster. A double deletion mutant deficient in both jadR1 and the cml cluster was also constructed and used in promoter fusion studies. Analyses of the results revealed that ES activates Cml biosynthesis in both wild-type and jadR1 deletion mutant, while Cml production by the latter was ca 80 % lower. Conclusions These results contradict earlier reports regarding the function of JadR1, but correlate well with the reporter activity data for some promoters, while reaction of others to the ES is genotype-dependent. Remarkably, the absence of Cml production in the double mutant has a profound effect on the way certain cml promoters react to ES. The latter suggests direct involvement of Cml in this complex regulatory mechanism.