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dc.contributor.authorSigmundsson, Hermundur
dc.contributor.authorHaga, Monika
dc.contributor.authorOfteland, Greta Storm
dc.contributor.authorSolstad, Trygve
dc.identifier.citationNew Ideas in Psychology. 2019, 57 .en_US
dc.description.abstractThe aim of this study was to examine when children learn to read and how learning to read depends on a foundation of alphabetic knowledge. 356 children aged 5–6 years completed assessments of letter-sound knowledge, i.e. the names and sounds of uppercase and lowercase letters of the Norwegian alphabet. Each child was tested at the start, the middle and the end of the school year. The time that each child broke the reading code was also recorded. The results indicated that 11% of the children knew how to read before starting school and 27% of the children did not learn to read by the end of the first year. The remaining children typically knew 21 uppercase letter sounds before they were first able to read, and only a few (<5%) knew less than 11 uppercase letter sounds when they broke the reading code. The average of all four letter-scores at the time they broke the reading code was 19 �5 letters (mean �standard deviation). Although letter sound knowledge was associated with the ability to read, it was not sufficient for breaking the reading code. 40% of children who knew 23 letter sounds or more, enough to read more than 80% of the most common Norwegian words, and 15% of children who knew all 29 letter sounds still could not read. Based on these data, it seems reasonable to advocate learning letter- sound correspondences early in the first year of school to form the best possible basis for breaking the reading code.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleBreaking the reading code: Letter knowledge when children break the reading code the first year in schoolen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.source.journalNew Ideas in Psychologyen_US
dc.description.localcodeAvailable online 31 October 20190732-118X. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND licenseen_US

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal