The effect of 9 weeks with high intensity aerobic interval training in combination with preloads of protein on weight reduction in overweight and obese women
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Background: Overweight and obesity are a result of an imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake. Protein is the macronutrient with the most satiating effect. Preloads of protein has shown to reduce subsequent energy intake compared to preloads of carbohydrate. Studies with preloads have only measured energy intake once. High intensity aerobic interval training (HIAIT) effectively increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and has shown to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals. Purpose: The study investigated whether preloads of protein in combination with HIAIT reduced body weight more than preloads of carbohydrate with the same regime. Methods: 40 overweight and obese women (age: 36 ± 8; Body mass index: 30.9 ± 2.4) were randomised to either a protein group (PG) or a carbohydrate group (CG) and received the same training intervention (4x4 minutes HIAIT; 90- 95 % of HRmax). They consumed preloads twice a day 30 minutes before large meals 7 days/week in 9 weeks. The study had a double- blinded design. Results: PG decreased body weight significantly more than CG (2.9 kg and 1.7 kg, P< 0.05). There was no between group difference in changes in body composition. Waist circumference decreased by 2.9 cm and 4.2 cm in CG and PG respectively. VO2max increased by 5.7 % and 7.2 % in CG and PG, respectively. Conclusions: Preloads of protein induced larger weight loss than preloads of carbohydrate. Mechanism behind can be increased satiety and, indirectly, reduced energy intake. However, differences between the groups are not apparent in body composition. HIAIT used in this study are an effective training intervention to increase VO2max for overweight and obese women.