SEM, EDS and XPS Analysis of the Coatings Obtained on Titanium after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Electrolytes Containing Copper Nitrate
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionMaterials. 2016, 9 (5), . 10.3390/ma9050318
In the paper, the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results of the surface layer formed on pure titanium after plasma electrolytic oxidation (micro arc oxidation) at the voltage of 450 V are shown. As an electrolyte, the mixture of copper nitrate Cu(NO3)2 (10–600 g/L) in concentrated phosphoric acid H3PO4 (98 g/mol) was used. The thickness of the obtained porous surface layer equals about 10 μm, and it consists mainly of titanium phosphates and oxygen with embedded copper ions as a bactericidal agent. The maximum percent of copper in the PEO surface layer was equal to 12.2 ± 0.7 wt % (7.6 ± 0.5 at %), which is the best result that the authors obtained. The top surface layer of all obtained plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings consisted most likely mainly of Ti3(PO4)4∙nH3PO4 and Cu3(PO4)2∙nH3PO4 with a small addition of CuP2, CuO and Cu2O.