Bio-instructive materials for musculoskeletal regeneration
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionActa Biomaterialia. 2019, 96 20-34. 10.1016/j.actbio.2019.07.014
The prevalence and cost of disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system are predicted to rise significantly in the coming years due to the aging global population and the increase of associated risk factors. Despite being the second largest cause of disability, the clinical options for therapeutic intervention remain limited. The clinical translation of cell-based therapies for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders faces many challenges including maintenance of cell survival in the harsh in vivo environment and the lack of control over regulating cell phenotype upon implantation. In order to address these challenges, the development of bio-instructive materials to modulate cell behavior has taken center stage as a strategy to increase the therapeutic potential of various cell populations. However, the determination of the necessary cues for a specific application and how these signals should be presented from a biomaterial remains elusive. This review highlights recent biochemical and physical strategies used to engineer bio-instructive materials for the repair of musculoskeletal tissues. There is a particular emphasis on emerging efforts such as the engineering of immunomodulatory and antibacterial materials, as well as the incorporation of these strategies into biofabrication and organ-on-a-chip approaches.