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dc.contributor.authorJiang, Meng
dc.contributor.authorBehrens, Paul
dc.contributor.authorWang, Tao
dc.contributor.authorTang, Zhipeng
dc.contributor.authorYu, Yadong
dc.contributor.authorChen, Dingjiang
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Lin
dc.contributor.authorRen, Zijian
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Wenji
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Shengjun
dc.contributor.authorHe, Canfei
dc.contributor.authorTukker, Arnold
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Bing
dc.identifier.citationProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019, .nb_NO
dc.description.abstractHigh-income countries often outsource material demands to poorer countries along with the associated environmental damage. This phenomenon can also occur within (large) countries, such as China, which was responsible for 24 to 30% of the global material footprint (MF) between 2007 and 2010. Understanding the distribution and development of China’s MF is hence critical for resource efficiency and circular economy ambitions globally. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of China’s MF at the provincial and sectoral levels. We combine provincial-level input–output data with sector- and province-specific trade data, detailed material extraction data, and the global input–output database EXIOBASE. We find that some provinces have MFs equivalent to medium-sized, highincome countries and limited evidence of material decoupling. Lower-income regions with high levels of material extraction can have an MF per capita as large as developed provinces due to much higher material intensities. The higher-income south-coastal provinces have lower MF per capita than equally developed provinces. This finding relates partly to differences in economic structure but indicates the potential for improvement across provinces. Investment via capital formation is up to 4 times more resource-intensive than consumption and drives 49 to 86% of provincial-level MFs (the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average is 37%). Resource-efficient production, efficient use of capital goods/infrastructure, and circular design are essential for reductions in China’s MF. Policy efforts to shift to a high-quality development model may reduce material intensities, preferably while avoiding the further outsourcing of high-intensity activities to other provinces or lower-income countries.nb_NO
dc.publisherNational Academy of Sciencesnb_NO
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleProvincial and sector-level material footprints in Chinanb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Humaniora: 000nb_NO
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Humanities: 000nb_NO
dc.source.journalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of Americanb_NO
dc.description.localcodeCopyright © 2019 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND).nb_NO
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for vareproduksjon og byggteknikk

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal