DeepTMA: Predicting Effective Contention Models for Network Calculus using Graph Neural Networks
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionIEEE Infocom. Proceedings. 2019, 2019-April 1009-1017. 10.1109/INFOCOM.2019.8737496
Network calculus computes end-to-end delay bounds for individual data flows in networks of aggregate schedulers. It searches for the best model bounding resource contention between these flows at each scheduler. Analyzing networks, this leads to complex dependency structures and finding the tightest delay bounds becomes a resource intensive task. The exhaustive search for the best combination of contention models is known as Tandem Matching Analysis (TMA). The challenge TMA overcomes is that a contention model in one location of the network can have huge impact on one in another location. These locations can, however, be many analysis steps apart from each other. TMA can derive delay bounds with high degree of tightness but needs several hours of computations to do so. We avoid the effort of exhaustive search altogether by predicting the best contention models for each location in the network. For effective predictions, our main contribution in this paper is a novel framework combining graph-based deep learning and Network Calculus (NC) models. The framework learns from NC, predicts best NC models and feeds them back to NC. Deriving a first heuristic from this framework, called DeepTMA, we achieve provably valid bounds that are very competitive with TMA. We observe a maximum relative error below 6%, while execution times remain nearly constant and outperform TMA in moderately sized networks by several orders of magnitude.