Electrostatic potential mapping at ferroelectric domain walls by low-temperature photoemission electron microscopy
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionApplied Physics Letters. 2019, 115 (12), 122903-1-122803-5. 10.1063/1.5117881
Low-temperature X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) is used to measure the electric potential at domain walls in improper ferroelectric Er0.99Ca0.01MnO3. By combining X-PEEM with scanning probe microscopy and theory, we develop a model that relates the detected X-PEEM contrast to the emergence of uncompensated bound charges, explaining the image formation based on intrinsic electronic domain-wall properties. In contrast to previously applied low-temperature electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), X-PEEM readily distinguishes between positive and negative bound charges at domain walls. Our study introduces an X-PEEM-based approach for low-temperature electrostatic potential mapping, facilitating nanoscale spatial resolution and data acquisition times on the order of 0.1–1 s.