A Gray-Box Method for Stability and Controller Parameter Estimation in HVDC-Connected Wind Farms Based on Nonparametric Impedance
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionIEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print). 2019, 63 (3), 1872-1882. 10.1109/TIE.2018.2840516
Estimation of critical control parameters is a desirable tool feature for stability analysis and impedance shaping of high voltage dc (HVdc) connected wind farms. Accurate estimation of such parameters would be enabled by access to detailed models, which is not always the case in real wind farms. Industrial secrecy is one of the main factors hindering the access to such models. This paper proposes a gray-box method that, with basic assumptions about the control structure of the wind energy conversion system (WECS), can estimate the parameters of its controllers. The method is based on the measurements of frequency domain equivalent impedance combined with nonparametric impedance identification used in the solution of an inverse problem. The method makes possible to specify which part of the equivalent WECS impedance has a major impact on the stability of the system and according to this, reshape the impedance to enforce stability. Once the critical controller bandwidth is identified with this method, an instability mitigation technique is proposed based on reshaping the impedance by retuning the critical controllers of the interconnected converters. In order to avoid interaction between the HVdc rectifier and the WECS inverter, the controllers of both converters need to be retuned in such a way that the q-axis impedance magnitude of the HVdc system is kept lower than the q-axis impedance magnitude of the wind farm at the frequency of the phase-locked loop bandwidth. The results show that the method ensures the stability of the system by retuning only the critical controller parameters.