Design of IoT-based Cyber-Physical Systems: A Driverless Bulldozer Prototype
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionInformation. 2019, 10 (11), . 10.3390/info10110343
From autonomous vehicles to robotics and machinery, organizations are developing autonomous transportation systems in various domains. Strategic incentives point towards a fourth industrial revolution of cyber–physical systems with higher levels of automation and connectivity throughout the Internet of Things (IoT) that interact with the physical world. In the construction and mining sectors, these developments are still at their infancy, and practitioners are interested in autonomous solutions to enhance efficiency and reliability. This paper illustrates the enhanced design of a driverless bulldozer prototype using IoT-based solutions for the remote control and navigation tracking of the mobile machinery. We illustrate the integration of a cloud application, communication protocols and a wireless communication network to control a small-scale bulldozer from a remote workstation. Furthermore, we explain a new tracking functionality of work completion using maps and georeferenced indicators available via a user interface. Finally, we provide a preliminary safety and security risk assessment of the system prototype and propose guidance for application in real-scale machinery.