Review of HVAC strategies for energy renovation of detached houses towards nZEB in cold climates
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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This paper provides a review of heat and ventilation measures that can be applied to ambitious energy renovation of detached houses in Nordic countries. In this review, requirements for solutions are defined. Key technologies are described and analysed in the context of renovation. The review focuses on strategies that are simple, cost-effective and robust, and can be transposed to the Norwegian context. The review revealed that a wider range of concepts and strategies than commonly used in Norway seem to be relevant. No solution or system appears to be an obvious and universal choice. A number of very different system solutions, with their pros and cons, are relevant, depending on the individual house and situation. Some combined heat and ventilation systems include hydronic space heating. This is however not common in Norwegian houses, and installing this is a major cost and intervention. Wood stoves, on the other hand, are regular, and can be used for peak heating. These factors seem to be crucial for the choice of system. Improved airtightness after renovation makes systematic ventilation measures necessary. Assumptions for occupant preferences and behaviour also seem to be important for choice of system. There are also differences in the commonly used HVAC concepts and strategies for renovation between the Nordic countries. These differences do not seem to be explained by climate only, and differences in building code may be part of the reason. A number of demonstration projects on ambitious energy upgrading are completed, but few of them have been systematically monitored and evaluated.