Local Flexibility Markets in Smart Cities: Interactions Between Positive Energy Blocks
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Adoption of solar PV and other distributed generation sources are becoming widespread and affordable across Europe. Local on-site energy production raises the chance to manage surplus energy (especially for variable renewable sources, solar or wind) and exploiting possible local flexibility sources (e.g. storage, load shifting, and others). These local energy system features has translated into the rise of positive energy buildings which form a cluster labeled as the Positive Energy Block (PEB). In this concept paper and as part of the H2020 project +CityXChange, we discuss the creation of local flexibility markets for PEBs. We propose the electricity trading within the block and the exchange of flexibility locally and externally to other PEBs. This creates added value and incentives for the consumer to exploit energy products and services. As local flexibility markets carry different definitions and connotations in the literature, we propose ideas for a local market based on PEBs. We discuss the value they provide, such as: 1) smoothing and balancing locally solar PV surplus, 2) defer distribution grid investmens and 3) utilizing local energy products.